Dec 282014
 December 28, 2014  Posted by at 12:19 am hardware, Tutorial, wireless Tagged with: , ,  No Responses »

I have many open-mesh OM1P units laying around from failed wireless projects. Needless to say I’m not a big fan of open-mesh and have some other projects in mind for this hardware. It was a painful process but well worth it. Now I have nice little OpenWRT units for any hacking pleasure.

I have made a concise synopsis of the openwrt wiki page for flashing proper firmware on the OM1p/Fon/Fonera/Accton/etc. Please visit for more detail.

Begin with serial access
You will need a TTL serial to usb or similar like this

Consult the openwrt wiki for pinout of om1p

Use minicom or screen to access it.

We need a tftp server (don’t worry its super easy if your using Debian :-).
I tried with http (apache) and it doesn’t work.

apt-get install atftpd

cd /srv/tftp/

(don’t install anything newer than 10.03.1, this little thing is old)

stop network manager so we can assign static ip:
/etc/init.d/network-manager stop
assign static ip:
ip address add dev eth0

connect to the usb serial:
screen /dev/ttyUSB0 9600

a few seconds into the boot you will see the following:

Board: ap51 
RAM: 0x80000000-0x82000000, [0x8003f640-0x80fe1000] available
FLASH: 0xa8000000 - 0xa87f0000, 128 blocks of 0x00010000 bytes each.
== Executing boot script in 3.000 seconds - enter ^C to abort

You have 3 seconds to press ctrl+c to interrupt the boot process and enter into redboot boot loader

On the om1p, in RedBoot, run the following commands.

Set the ip of redboot and the tftp server:
(Don’t forget to connect them with ethernet cable.)

RedBoot> ip_address -h -l

IP:, Gateway:
Default server:

download linux onto the om1p:
RedBoot> load -r -b %{FREEMEMLO} openwrt-atheros-vmlinux.lzma

Using default protocol (TFTP)
Raw file loaded 0x8003f800-0x8011f7ff, assumed entry at 0x8003f800

initialize the current flash partition, this will erase openmesh firmware, yay!:
RedBoot> fis init

About to initialize [format] FLASH image system - continue (y/n)? y
*** Initialize FLASH Image System
... Erase from 0xa87e0000-0xa87f0000: .
... Program from 0x80ff0000-0x81000000 at 0xa87e0000: .

Now flash the kernel image to memory:
RedBoot> fis create -e 0x80041000 -r 0x80041000 vmlinux.bin.l7

... Erase from 0xa8030000-0xa8110000: ..............
... Program from 0x8003f800-0x8011f800 at 0xa8030000: ..............
... Erase from 0xa87e0000-0xa87f0000: .
... Program from 0x80ff0000-0x81000000 at 0xa87e0000: .

Now load the rootfs:
RedBoot> load -r -b %{FREEMEMLO} openwrt-atheros-root.squashfs

Using default protocol (TFTP)
Raw file loaded 0x8003f800-0x8021f7ff, assumed entry at 0x8003f800

And then flash the rootfs:
RedBoot> fis create rootfs

... Erase from 0xa8110000-0xa82f0000: ..............................
... Program from 0x8003f800-0x8021f800 at 0xa8110000: ..............................
... Erase from 0xa87e0000-0xa87f0000: .
... Program from 0x80ff0000-0x81000000 at 0xa87e0000: .

Reboot the om1p:
RedBoot> reset

You will see OpenWRT booting and creating filesystems and such.

jffs2_scan_eraseblock(): End of filesystem marker found at 0x0
jffs2_build_filesystem(): unlocking the mtd device... done.
jffs2_build_filesystem(): erasing all blocks after the end marker... done.
mini_fo: using base directory: /
mini_fo: using storage directory: /overlay
BusyBox v1.15.3 (2011-11-24 02:38:24 CET) built-in shell (ash)
Enter 'help' for a list of built-in commands.
  _______                     ________        __
 |       |.-----.-----.-----.|  |  |  |.----.|  |_
 |   -   ||  _  |  -__|     ||  |  |  ||   _||   _|
 |_______||   __|_____|__|__||________||__|  |____|
          |__| W I R E L E S S   F R E E D O M
 Backfire (10.03.1, r29592) ------------------------
  * 1/3 shot Kahlua    In a shot glass, layer Kahlua 
  * 1/3 shot Bailey's  on the bottom, then Bailey's, 
  * 1/3 shot Vodka     then Vodka.

Now we need to set a heartbeat for the hardware watchdog otherwise the om1p reboots every 5 minutes.

vi /etc/config/om1pwatchdog

gpioctl dirout 3 ; gpioctl clear 3
sleep 1
gpioctl set 3

Make it executable:
chmod 755 /etc/config/om1pwatchdog

Run every 2 minutes:
crontab -e
add the following and save
*/2 * * * * /etc/config/om1pwatchdog

Start NM again, you will now get an ip from the om1p openwrt dhcp server.
/etc/init.d/network-manager start

connect with firefox at

yay, no more crap open-mesh!

Mar 122010
 March 12, 2010  Posted by at 1:52 am documentation, hardware Tagged with: , , , , , ,  No Responses »

The wonderful world of motherboard BIOS updates, is still old fashioned. Updates are often still built for Microsoft Windows environments. Often requiring MS DOS. Those of us who don’t have DOS, a floppy drive, an install of Windows 98 to create a bootable floppy, cheesy Pâté, or MS Windows for that matter ….. Here is a way one can flash that BIOS of your mobo using, our favorite free software licensed, operating systems and tools.

DISCLAIMER: Don’t attempt this unless you know what you are doing. I have never had problems doing this, BUT many things can go wrong and you CAN easily “brick” your hardware. Proceed at your own risk!!

We will be using FreeDOS, a wonderfully free and royalty exempt Microsoft DOS compatible operating system. Licensed under the General Public License (GPL).
Note: As usual, my posts require some knowledge of the command line.

gunzip FDOEM.144.gz
mkdir floppy
sudo mount -o loop FDOEM.144 floppy/
ls floppy

you should see these files:

Download your BIOS update file from the manufacturer or vendor.
Note: Sometimes, the update will be distributed as a .exe (Windows Executable) file. Most likely it will actually be a compressed zip archive. You can use unzip to extract the .exe file.

Download the update using wget, then unzip the resulting image file “FDOEM.144” into the mounted folder: “floppy/”

wget http://path-to-your-bios-update/
sudo unzip -d floppy/

In this case, the following files are extracted from the file:
inflating: BIOS.WPH
inflating: OEMPHL.EXE
inflating: OPTIONS.BAT
inflating: PHLASH16.EXE
inflating: releasenotes.txt
inflating: 1.BAT

now, move to the previous directory (cd ..), and un-mount the FDOEM.144 image:

cd ..
sudo umount floppy/

generate an el torito bootable iso image:

genisoimage -o flashboot.iso -b FDOEM.144 FDOEM.144

Now burn flashboot.iso to CD using wodim:

wodim flashboot.iso

Now you can boot from that cd and run your flash utility!! Read the BIOS update instructions on how to do this..

Feb 182010
 February 18, 2010  Posted by at 11:44 pm documentation, hardware Tagged with: , , , , , , , ,  1 Response »

Recently, I was installing debian on a new server and grub2 would not install gave me this error:

“This GPT partition label has no BIOS Boot Partition; embedding won’t be possible! grub-setup: error: Embedding is not possible, but this is required when the root device is on a RAID array or LVM volume.”

Of course, it being grub2, I jumped to the conclusion that grub2 was the problem. I installed legacy grub and got nowhere.
Doing the usual
grub> root (hd0,0)
grub> setup (hd0)
produces this error:
“file /boot/grub/stage1 not read correctly”

No matter what I did, it would not install. So, I went back to the original message and gave grub2 its due process. Turns out this Dell T410 uses GPT (GUID Partition Table) which is an extension of EFI. The “BIOS Boot Partition” is an actual partition on the hard drive. Grub2 embeds the core.img (multiboot boot kernel) into this BIOS boot partition instead of the MBR.
Here are two great resources on this subject: and

So, the solution:
I had to re-install Debian with a small partition. Apparently it can be under a few hundred KiB. Space is cheap and I didn’t want to have more problems, so I made mine 5MB and put it at the beginning of the disk. In the Debian partitioner, set the partition under “use as:” to “Reserved BIOS boot area“. Then continue with the rest of your partitions and install. Grub2 installed with no problems this time!

If using an older version of Debian, lenny (v5) or older. The “use as:” does not have an option for Reserved BIOS boot area. So, I booted into expert install mode, when you get to “Load installed components from CD” select parted. This will install parted in the install environment. Before you get to detect disks, do ctrl+alt+f2. On the command line you can manually create a bios boot area.

The following parted commands.

parted -a optimal /dev/sda mkpart 1 1 6

The above command creates the first (1) partition from 1MB of the drive to 6MB. -a optimal sets the block alignment for best performance. If you start the partition at 0 the alignment is wrong and parted will Warn: “The resulting partition is not properly aligned for best performance. Ignore/Cancel?”

parted /dev/sda set 1 bios_grub on

This sets /dev/sda1 as GPT grub bios partition. This partition will be found and used by grub on install.

Now, ctrl+alt+f1, and continue the install. Select manual partitioning and be sure not to delete the primary partition (gpt, grub bios) when creating your new partitions.

Do this to all drives in a raid!

After you boot into the fresh install, you can manually install to the other disks.

grub-install /dev/sdb

Now its installed on sda and sdb. In case sda fails, it should be able to boot from sdb.